Energy transitions are complex and long-term processes and require a variety of public policy interventions to steer their direction and speed to achieve global climate change mitigation targets. One area where policy support is required is energy efficiency, which offers a high potential for carbon savings. It is widely acknowledged that energy efficiency improvements will need to be faster and deeper than is currently the case and this requires policy instrument mixes to support both those energy efficiency measures that are simple and cost-effective as well as more complex and costly technologies. In other words, policy mixes need to be well-targeted and comprehensive. This paper addresses the issue of comprehensiveness in terms of technology-specificity and the level of complexity and costliness of energy efficiency measures.
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